IATA
How Do You Ship an Engine? (IATA)

Diesel Engine Close Up

How should you provide quantity on a shipper’s declaration for an engine?

Generating a shipper’s declaration for an engine isn’t exactly new to me. I have been creating shipper’s declarations for engines since the very first time I stepped into the DG packaging world, and that was a long time ago. Therefore, it hit me pretty hard when a client’s shipment, containing an engine, was rejected by their air carrier.

Engines and UN Numbers

For many years the UN number for engines and vehicles were the same and it was classified as hazard class 9. Just recently it was changed so that each type of engine has their own UN number and hazard class. Therefore, internal combustion engines containing flammable liquid is classified as UN3528 and falls under hazard class 3.

My client said there was a small amount of diesel fuel inside (it wasn’t drained). Based on this I classified his engine as UN3528. He provided me with the completed shipment detail form which provided me with all the details of the shipment including net weight of the engine and the amount of fuel inside the engine.

Quantity of the Engine on the Shipper’s Declaration

I started to work on the shipper’s declaration and had to stop at the “Quantity and type of packing” section. There wasn’t an immediate measurement I could use for the engine. As per column “J” and Continue Reading…

Regulatory Helpdesk: January 15, 2018

Here are the top 4 questions last week:

Welcome back to the Regulatory Helpdesk where we answer your dangerous goods & hazmat questions. We’re here to help you become independent with – and understand the whys and hows – of the regulations.

Worded Label Requirements

Q. Are worded labels required for use in US transport?
A. Based on 172.405(a), except where prescribed, wording is optional on US hazard class labels.

Placement of UN Number, Shipping Name and Hazard Class Label

Q. Can you put the “ISH” information (shipping name, UN number and hazard label) on the top of a package (e.g. box)?
A. That depends. Different regulations express it differently, but the key message is that the information must be easily located and read; and with few exceptions in proximity to each other on the same surface of the package. All common regulations (49 CFR, Canadian TDGR, IATA DGR, IMDG Code) have a general requirement for legibility.

49 CFR requires the information to be clearly visible on a surface other than the bottom [172.304(f) and 172.304(a)(i)]- so the top could be allowed if the configuration resulted in it being clearly visible.

IATA DGR and the IMDG Code do not specify top/bottom but only require the information to be “readily visible” [IATA 7.2.6.1(a); IMDG 5.2.1.2.1, 5.2.2,1.6].

TDGR, however, is a little more prescriptive- requiring the information to be “on any side … other than the side on Continue Reading…

Single Packaging
4G Combination Packaging Dos and Don’ts

Man preparing shipment

Can I Make changes to my 4G Combination Package?

Some time ago, I wrote a blog that outlined the benefits and regulations of the 4GV packaging. Often referred to as Variation 2 packaging, we discussed the main benefit of this packaging is that different types of inner containers can be used whether they are liquid in glass bottles, metal cans, plastic bottles, or different types of solids. But what about non-4GV packaging (basically any combination package that has a UN marking on it that excludes the “V”)?

Can changes be made to the inner packaging? Here are some questions below that will clear up some of the confusion.

Replacing Plastic with Metal

PK-1GRPC Combination Packaging
PK-1GRPC 4G Plastic Container Combination Package
(Learn More)

UN Marking: 4G/Y5.1/S

    • Q. So what we have here is our PK-1GRPC kit. This includes a plastic HDPE bottle and a corrugated box. Can this box also be used to ship dangerous goods with a tin plated paint cans?
    • A. No. This box was tested at the lab with a one gallon HDPE bottle, so in this case you would not be allowed to use this box with any other type of inner container with a different structural design. 178.601 (g) (1) (i) (a) TP14850 8.1.2.3 (a)

Substituting an Insert for Absorbent or Adding Additional Cushioning

PK-NQTCA 4G Combination Packaging
PK-NQTCA 4G Paint Can Shipper (Learn More)

UN Marking: 4G/Y4.0/S

PHMSA Change Notice

Man preparing shipment

PHMSA Issues Notice of Change on Termination of M-Number and R-Number Approvals with no Expiration Date

PHMSA has made a proposal to terminate previously approved M-numbers and R-numbers that were issued without an expiration date. Unless approval holders can either show why their approvals should not be terminated as provided in 49 CFR 107.713(c)(1) or apply for a modification of their approval in accordance with 49 CFR 107.705 prior to the effective date, their M-number may be considered expired. Modified approvals will conform to the Approvals and Permits Division’s standardized format in which all approvals have a 5-year expiration date.

M Number on UN packaging

What is an M-Number?

An “M-Number” or manufacturer number is issued by the D.O.T. to a manufacturer of packaging related to hazardous goods as a means of identification. This number is used in place of the manufacturer’s name and address as authorized in 49 CFR 178.503. In addition, an “R” number was a number previously given to companies that recondition their hazardous goods packaging, but PHMSA now uses M-numbers in their place. Often times the M-number is displayed on the outside of a package (like in the above picture). Manufacturer’s symbols can come in two formats. The first format lists the manufacturers sequentially by Identification Number (M#). The second format lists each state’s manufacturers alphabetically by city and company name. The identification number, the name and address, the status, and Continue Reading…

Single Packaging
UN Specification Packaging Mystery

UN Specification Packaging Mystery

We Got a Mystery to Solve

One of my favorite childhood shows was “Scooby-Doo, Where Are You?”. How he and his group of friends could solve all those crazy hauntings and monsters always amazed me. Nothing made me happier than when the culprit was discovered and he uttered the words, “If it weren’t for you pesky kids, I would have gotten away with it.” After all I was only a kid and catching the bad guys was a big deal.

Occasionally during a training class odd questions or little mysteries arise. In those times I can feel like Thelma from my childhood show tracking down the clues and getting an answer. Here is one from one mystery from a recent training. It came about after our discussion on United Nations (UN) Specification Packaging. We had just finished reviewing all the parts of the packaging codes and discussing the manufacturer’s packing instructions as they apply to 49 CFR – US ground regulations. This lead to talking about their actual facility. Below is a picture of a box they have on site for use. They wanted to know if it was in compliance.

Ah, a mystery I can solve.

UN Specification Packaging Mystery 2

In case you didn’t catch why they asked about this particular box and compliance, take a look at the FOUR package specification codes on the box. For most boxes, there is only one code derived from the Continue Reading…

Single Packaging
Anatomy of a Box

Anatomy of a Box - UN Packaging

Fiberboard’s Organs

As we know, the human body is made up of many essential components, from the smallest microscopic cell to the largest of organs. The same goes for corrugated boxes, but instead of cells, there are tiny fibers, and instead of organs, there is inner fluting. All components are necessary to have strong and sound structure. Let’s take a look at the anatomy of a box.

The Corrugated Fiberboard

What exactly is a box mostly made of? Corrugated fiberboard. The corrugated fiberboard is essentially the skeleton of the box. Made up by thousands of tiny fibers, it is created by a corrugator. A corrugator is a large machine that combines two different kinds of paper to create cut sheets of corrugated fiberboard. The flat, facing sheets are referred to as the linerboard. Linerboard is a thin fiberboard that makes up the outer layer. Flutes are inner arches attached in between the linerboards with a starch based adhesive. They are designed to resist pressure and bending in all directions.

corrugated cardboard linerboard
Linerboard

corrugated cardboard Fluting
Fluting

Together makes Corrugated Fiberboard

Fiberboard box

Corrugated Fiberboard can come with various amount of flutes within the linerboard, usually ranging from single wall to triple wall.

Single Face: Consists of 1 linerboard and 1 flute

Single wall: Contains 2 liner boards and 1 flute.

Double wall: Contains 3 linerboards and 2 flutes.

Triple Wall: Contains 4 linerboards and 3 flutes.

Single, double, and triple walled fiberboard

In addition the outer Continue Reading…

Packaging Infectious Substances

Infectious Substances Packaging

What Are Infectious Substances?

Infectious Substances are defined as substances which are known or are reasonably expected to contain pathogens, or micro-organisms including bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi which can cause disease in humans or animals. Section 1.4 TDG, IATA 3.6.2.1.1. They are split up into two separate categories. Category A which is capable of causing permanent disability, life-threating or fatal disease in otherwise healthy humans or animals. Category A infectious substances are either assigned UN2814 or UN2900 and are class 6.2. IATA 3.6.2.2. Category B substances are any other infectious substances that do not meet the criteria for inclusion of Category A. They are assigned the UN number 3373.

Packaging Infectious Substances

For Category A substances, Infectous Substances Affecting Humans or Animals Only, strict performance criteria should be met on the packaging including drop testing, puncture testing, a pressure testing, and a stacking test. The configuring is often referred to as the triple packaging system. When packaging Category A substances, you must start out with a leak-proof primary receptacle. If the substances are shipped at room temperature or higher, these receptacles must be made of glass, metal, or plastic. The primary receptacles must then be placed into a leak-proof secondary packaging, either wrapped individually or separated to prevent any contact.

Both the primary and secondary packaging must be able to withstand an internal pressure of at least 95 kPa. If Continue Reading…

Single Packaging
ISTA Series 6: 6-FEDEX-A Testing vs. Standard UN Testing

When we think of UN Testing, several things may come to mind. We have the drop test which evaluates the package’s ability to handle collisions, the vibration test which simulates movements created by a motorized vehicle, the Cobb test which is designed to ensure the fiberboard will not disintegrate when exposed to water, and the stacking test which checks the integrity of the package by stacking various weights over the top of it. However, those that want to test their packages under the ISTA 6-FEDEX-A requirements for packages 150 lbs. or under are finding it to be difficult to get a passing grade.

What Are The Differences?

Under standard testing, each sample is dropped only one time at a specific height for a total of 5 drops total from 5 different samples.

Under the ISTA 6-FEDEX-A testing, 1 complete sample is dropped 10 times focusing on every corner and edge of the package. Any significant leaking on either of these tests would result in a failure, which makes the ISTA testing very difficult to pass because of the number of drops. In addition, flat and elongated packages must go through a bridge or concentrated impact test procedure. This procedure consists of dropping a wooden box measuring 12″ x 12″ x 12″ dense wooden box weighing 21 lbs. on the midpoint of the package.

Under standard testing, the stacking Continue Reading…

Single Packaging
Change Notice: BX-19SP & BX-21SP

In an effort to continuously improve the quality and performance of our UN packaging, we occasionally must make changes to the specifications and usage instructions. This notice is to inform you that the following changes have been made to BX-19SP and BX-21SP.

  1. The clear tape required for closure of this packaging has changed from 3M #305 48mm wide clear tape to 3M #375 48mm wide clear tape. This change to a stronger tape caused the box to perform better in drop tests, resulting in a more secure packaging.

BX-19SP – USA

BX-19SP – Canada

BX-21SP

If you have any questions or concerns, please contact our customer relations center in the US at 888-442-9628 or in Canada at 888-977-4834.

Thank you,
Karrie Ishmael
Regulatory Manager

Single Packaging
Change Notice: BX-12SP

In an effort to continuously improve the quality and performance of our UN packaging, we occasionally must make changes to the specifications and usage instructions. This notice is to inform you that the following changes have been made to BX-12SP.

  1. The clear tape required for closure of this packaging has changed from 3M #305 48mm wide clear tape to 3M #375 48mm wide clear tape. This change to a stronger tape caused the box to perform better in drop tests, resulting in a more secure packaging.

If you have any questions or concerns, please contact our customer relations center in the US at 888-442-9628 or in Canada at 888-977-4834.

Thank you,
Michael S. Zendano
Packaging Specialist