Fire Safety
Spring Ahead – Fire Safety

Smoke Detector

Springtime Fire Safety

It is that time of year again, where we all lose an hour in our day. The good news is that we also gain an hour of daylight, and it means that warmer weather is just around the corner.

Many organizations including the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) suggest taking the time to also check smoke alarms. The NFPA states:

Roughly two-thirds of home fire deaths occur in homes with no smoke alarms or working smoke alarms. When smoke alarms should have worked but failed to operate, it is usually because batteries were missing, disconnected, or dead. NFPA provides the following guidelines around smoke alarms:

  • Test smoke alarms at least once a month using the test button.
  • Make sure everyone in the home understands the sound of the smoke alarm and knows how to respond.
  • Replace all smoke alarms when they are 10 years old.
  • Replace the smoke alarm immediately if it doesn’t respond properly when tested.
  • Smoke alarms with nonreplaceable (long-life) batteries are designed to remain effective for up to 10 years. If the alarm chirps, a warning that the battery is low, replace the entire smoke alarm right away.
  • For smoke alarms with any other type of battery, replace batteries at least once a year. If the alarm chirps, replace only the battery.

Fire Extinguishers

Also, take time to make sure your fire extinguishers are in good working order. If they are in a business, ensure that inspections are up-to-date. The NFPA provides the following guidance regarding the use of an extinguisher:

Safety tips

  • Use a portable fire extinguisher when the fire is confined to a small area, such as a wastebasket, and is not growing; everyone has exited the building; the fire department has been called or is being called; and the room is not filled with smoke.
  • To operate a fire extinguisher, remember the word PASS:
    • Pull the pin. Hold the extinguisher with the nozzle pointing away from you, and release the locking mechanism.
    • Aim low. Point the extinguisher at the base of the fire.
    • Squeeze the lever slowly and evenly.
    • Sweep the nozzle from side-to-side.
  • For the home, select a multi-purpose extinguisher (can be used on all types of home fires) that is large enough to put out a small fire, but not so heavy as to be difficult to handle.
  • Choose a fire extinguisher that carries the label of an independent testing laboratory.
  • Read the instructions that come with the fire extinguisher and become familiar with its parts and operation before a fire breaks out. Local fire departments or fire equipment distributors often offer hands-on fire extinguisher trainings.
  • Install fire extinguishers close to an exit and keep your back to a clear exit when you use the device so you can make an easy escape if the fire cannot be controlled. If the room fills with smoke, leave immediately.
  • Know when to go.

Sources:
http://www.nfpa.org/news-and-research/news-and-media/press-room/news-releases/2014/nfpa-encourages-testing-smoke-alarms-as-daylight-saving-time-begins

http://www.nfpa.org/public-education/by-topic/fire-and-life-safety-equipment/fire-extinguishers

Lawnmower
Spring into Safety – Gasoline/Lithium-Ion Battery Powered Lawn Equipment

Backyard

Lawn Equipment Safety

As the cold weather comes to an end (hopefully sooner rather than later) and we turn the corner and head into spring, we will realize that we have our work cut out for us in our backyards. Once the snow melts and the reality sets in that we have a lawn and garden that will need attention, into our sheds and garages we will go to dust off our battery or gas powered lawn equipment to get the job done. Using the lawn equipment may seem pretty straightforward, but we must realize that this equipment is powered by gasoline and lithium-ion batteries, which if not stored and used correctly, or under the wrong circumstances, can be quite dangerous. Below are some safety tips for gasoline and battery powered lawn equipment.

Safety Tips for Gasoline Powered Lawn Equipment:

  • Store gasoline in an approved container or tank. Keep gasoline containers tightly closed and handle them gently to avoid spills.
  • Gasoline is a flammable liquid and should be stored at room temperature, away from potential heat sources such as the sun, a hot water heater, space heater, or a furnace, and a least 50 feet away from ignition sources, such as pilot lights. Gasoline vapors are heavier than air and can travel along the floor to ignition sources.
  • Do not smoke where gasoline is handled or stored.
  • Only refill gasoline into the gas tank when the engine and attachments are cool.
  • Store gasoline in a building separate from the house, such as a shed or garage.

Safety Tips for Lawn Equipment Containing Lithium-Ion Batteries:

  • Store battery packs indoors away from direct sunlight and excessive heat.
  • When battery pack is not in use, keep it away from metal objects like nails, screws or keys.
  • Keep battery packs dry, clean, and away from oil and grease.
  • Do not use the equipment in the rain or allow the battery pack to get wet.
  • Make sure battery pack is secured properly in the equipment before use.
  • Do not use equipment near an open flame.
  • Refer to your owner’s manual for more specific instructions.

Source: http://www.api.org/oil-and-natural-gas/health-and-safety/product-safety-at-home/safe-storage-and-disposal-of-gasoline

Safety Data Sheets (SDS)
How to Read a Safety Data Sheet (SDS)

Hockey Goalie

Safety Data Sheets Defend Your Employees

Chemical Safety in the workplace can be a topic most employers would like to avoid. However, not only is it vital to the employee’s and community’s wellbeing, it is a requirement by law. In comes Safety Data Sheets (SDS) to the rescue! If Chemical safety in the workplace was a hockey team, training, storage requirements, purchasing, disposal, and inventory requirements would make up the Center, Forwards, and Defense, leaving the cornerstone of any hockey team, the Goalie to represent Safety Data Sheets (SDS). OSHA Standard 1910.1200 (g)(8) states that The employer shall maintain in the workplace copies of the required safety data sheets for each hazardous chemical, and shall ensure that they are readily accessible during each work shift to employees when they are in their work area(s). However without correct understanding of Safety Data Sheets, it would be like having an injured goalie in your starting lineup. Below are some tips for reading a 16-section format SDS.

Section 1. Identification:

Identifies the chemical on the SDS and displays the recommended uses. This section also provides contact information of the manufacturer as well as an emergency phone number.

Section 2. Hazard Identification:

The purpose of this section is to identify various hazards the chemical presents as well as any warning information. This includes Hazard class, signal words, pictograms and hazard statements.

Section 3. Composition/Information on Ingredients:

Displays the ingredients contained in the product. It gives the concentration of each ingredient that is classified as a health hazard.

Section 4. First Aid Measures:

Describes any first aid that should be given by untrained responders if there is exposure to the chemical. This includes symptoms and recommended immediate medical care.

Section 5: Fire-Fighting Measures:

Gives recommendations of how to handle a fire that is caused by this chemical. This includes extinguishing equipment, protective equipment, and information on other hazards that can arise if the chemical burns.

Section 6: Accidental Release Measures:

Lays out the recommended response to spills, leaks, or releases of the chemical. This includes cleanup practices, emergency procedures for evacuation, protective equipment, and spill volume.

Section 7: Handling and Storage:

Outlines the procedure for safe storage of the chemical. This includes ventilation requirements if applicable.

Section 8: Exposure Controls/Personal Protection:

Recommends the specific types of personal protection such as gloves, respirators, or glasses when using the chemical referenced in the SDS.

Section 9: Physical and Chemical Properties:

This section identifies the appearance, odor, density, flammability or explosive limits, as well as other physical properties of the chemical.

Section 10: Stability and Reactivity:

Breaks down the different reactive hazards of the chemical and stability information. This includes an indication of whether the chemical will react in certain situations such as pressure or temperature change, as well as any safety issues that may arise if the product changes in physical appearance. There is also a description of specific test data for the chemical.

Section 11: Toxicological Information:

Identifies any information about immediate or chronic health effects that may arise from exposure to the chemical. This also includes symptoms of exposure from lowest to most severe.

Section 12: Ecological Information:

This section measures the impact the chemical has on the environment if it were released. This includes test results if available.

Section 13: Disposal Considerations:

Provides information on how to properly dispose of the chemical as well as safe handling practices.

Section 14: Transport Information:

Provides guidance on classification information for shipping and transporting by ground, air, or sea. This includes UN number, proper shipping name, and hazard class.

Section 15: Regulatory Information:

Displays the specific regulations for the product not indicated anywhere else on the SDS.

Section 16: Other Information:

Indicates when the SDS was created and the level of revision. This section states where the changes have been made to the previous version.


As always, if you have any questions regarding SDS Services contact ICC Compliance Center at 1.888.442.9628 (USA) or 1.888.977.4834 (Canada).


Source: https://www.osha.gov/Publications/OSHA3514.html

Lithium
Lithium Battery Labels as of Feb 1, 2017

Both 49 CFR and TDG are expecting to harmonize lithium battery labels into the regulations; however, both regulations are pending. HM-215N (49 CFR) was recalled, and will not be reissued for at least 60 days.

Transport Canada has not provided an ETA on the harmonization.

Find out the correct labels to use below:

 

Deer Crossing Sign
Are Highway Warning Signs Effective?

How Well Do Driving Safety Signs Work?

A few years ago, someone wrote an irate letter to his local newspaper about the deer warning signs put up on a local highway. He couldn’t understand why they were always on busy highways. Wouldn’t it reduce accidents if the deer were told to cross smaller roads instead?

We may laugh, but the story does bring up an interesting point. Just how effective are traffic warning signs? They can be found wherever we travel, from the common “sharp curve ahead” to the more esoteric, such as the “moose warning” signs in Newfoundland. Highway safety departments consider them an important part of improving driving safety. But how well do they work?

Apparently, the answer is somewhere between “not great” and “we’re not sure.” There’s little research on the effectiveness of highway traffic signs and what there is shows that a surprising lack of effectiveness. For example, the Minnesota Department of Transportation has admitted:

“Signs that alert drivers to infrequent encounters or possible situations–such as deer crossing or children playing—do not have a consistent impact on driver behavior. Widespread use or misuse of warning signs reduces their overall effectiveness.”

Traffic and Why We Drive The Way We Drive

Tom Vanderbilt, author of Traffic: Why We Drive the Way We Do (and What It Says About Us), says:

“[D]rivers routinely see signs warning of deer crossings (in the United States) or elephant crossings (in Sri Lanka) or camel signs (in Tunisia). It is difficult to say what is going on in the mind of a driver whenever he or she sees a deer or elephant or camel crossing sign, but studies have shown that most drivers do not change their speed at all.”

Surprisingly little work has been put into studying the effectiveness of traffic signs, considering how they can be seen on every highway or busy city street. What studies have been done have not shown signage has a strong effect on reducing accidents in dangerous areas. In fact, many experts believe that the main purpose of traffic warning signs is not to reduce accidents but to provide liability protection for the government that posts them.

Why Aren’t They Successful?

So, why don’t traffic signs work like they should? Many reasons are likely at play. Marc Green, in his article The Psychology of Warnings says compliance with warning signs involves the driver making a cost-benefit analysis, where he or she balances the following factors:

  1. Cost of compliance – most traffic signs, in their most basic message, say “slow down, because something ahead is dangerous.” The driver will (consciously or not) factor in the inconvenience of being late, or their dislike of being slow, as part of the cost of compliance. Green notes this is a similar problem with product warning labels. “Increased time reading” can be seen as a “cost of compliance”. Who’s going to read an entire product label when there’s a rush job to be done?
  2. Danger perception – this is the old risk versus hazard issue. Most drivers will stop at stop signs, because they understand that if they don’t, they significantly increase their risk of getting hit. But if you drive a road for years and never see a deer, you may come to feel that even if the consequences of hitting a deer are high, the risk of that ever happening is low. Paradoxically, people who feel confident in their driving skills more likely to ignore such signs. Green points out “[o]ne of the ironies of warnings is that the more experienced and skilled the viewer, the stronger the familiarization effect and the more likely that the warning will be ignored. For example, diving team members are the most likely people to ignore “no diving” signs.” Further, herd behavior can be a factor; if everyone speeds, it appears to be safer than if everyone slows down.

Each driver will evaluate these two factors and make a (perhaps unconscious) decision to obey the sign or to ignore it and risk something nasty happening down the road.

Complying & Understanding

There are many ways safety experts are now working to determine what psychological factors make people decide to obey traffic signs. For example, the effectiveness of signs can be diluted if they appear everywhere, so signs may be posted only where significant hazards truly exist. Green mentions

“People have unconsciously learned the general rule that signs and signals grow in size and vividness with their importance, presumably so that they will be more readily seen. Viewers will then likely interpret warnings that are small, faint, or located peripherally as signaling lower risk.”

These factors apply to all drivers, but they also are an important issue for workplace and consumer safety labels. Designers of OSHA or WHMIS labels must, of course, comply with the regulations, but understanding the psychology of safety warnings is also important when trying to create an effective label design. The label must be able to persuade the reader that compliance is really the most cost-beneficial response. By studying what we’ve learned about highway signs, we can learn what psychological nuances improve the likelihood that users will comply with the label.

Fortunately, OSHA and WHMIS labels include precautionary phrases that specifically instruct the user in what to do to ensure safety, a feature sometimes lacking in traffic signs. For example, when confronted by a “falling rocks” sign, what should a driver do? Avoid the area? Wear a hard hat when going through the zone? And I was always perplexed on how drivers transversing a typical single-lane Scottish highway were expected to respond to the ominous warning on blind curves – “Oncoming traffic may be in centre of road” – that gave drivers no suggestion for how to negotiate the curve safely.

Have you seen any particularly effective or ineffective traffic signs? If so, let us know in the comment section. And if you have questions about labelling for workplace or transportation safety, contact ICC Compliance Center at 1.888.442.9628 (USA) or 1.888.977.4834 (Canada).

Lithium
Lithium Battery Worlds Collide

One of my favorite episodes of the show Seinfeld is the one where worlds collide. In the episode Elaine asks George’s girlfriend Susan to a show. On the surface this seems harmless. According to Kramer, this is a bad thing because when George’s “sanctuary world” and his “girlfriend world” collide there will be an explosion.

I had a case of my worlds colliding over the holidays. Let’s see what the results were. The attached pictures are from a leaf blower my husband received as a Christmas gift. It is a nice gift that will help us with yard work in the future. The description on the box says it comes with a charger for the included 40 volt, 2.0 ampere-hour rechargeable lithium-ion battery. On the back was the Lithium battery handling information. I didn’t pay much attention to it due to being in a cookie coma from the holidays.

Lithium battery label on box

Upon arrival home and while unloading the car, my husband noticed the information on the box and pointed it out to me. He then asks, “Should this be on here?” Needless to say, once we were fully unpacked I grabbed my regulations just to see.

Using the information on the box let’s review some points for shipping Lithium-ion batteries. Bear in mind this was purchased at a store where it was on the shelf. I have no way of knowing if it was shipped in this box.

  • Step 1: Is this lithium-ion battery is “contained in equipment” or “packed with equipment”?
    • Answer: The battery was not inserted into the blower but in a separate box beside it. This means it would have been “packed with equipment”.
  • Step 2: What is the watt-hour rating?
    • Answer: This was easy enough since the box said the battery had a 2 ampere-hour capacity and a voltage of 40 volts.  Using the following formula:

Watt-hours = Ah (ampere-hours) x V (voltage)
Watt-hours = 2 Ah.  X 40 volts
Watt=hours = 80 watt-hours

  • Step 3: What would be the proper identification number, shipping name, hazard class, and packing group (ISHP) if this had been shipped?
    • Answer: Since the manufacturer is within the US, I looked at the US ground regulations, 49 CFR. It is a Lithium-ion battery that was packed with equipment. Using the Hazardous Materials Table (HMT) that tells me the proper ISHP would be UN3481 // Lithium-ion batteries packed with equipment // Class 9 // no packing group.
  • Step 4: What sort of packaging requirements are there?
    • Answer: Again the HMT gave me that information in column 8. Luckily for UN3481 the packaging information is all found in Section 173.185. The only Special Provisions listed in the table are for air shipments. Much of this section didn’t apply to my query because I wasn’t shipping this. However, this section is also where all of the marking, labelling, exceptions/exemptions and hazard communication information is found.
  • Step 5: Where does the leaf blower fit and why was that particular safety information used?
    • Answer: This goes back to the information from Step 2. The watt-hour rating of 80 put me into Section 173.185(c) for exceptions. In that section is where the hazard communication information is found. In that was the proof I needed to say, “It is ok for this information to be on this box.” The box only has 1 lithium battery and the box is using the “handling marking” shown in paragraph (c)(3)(ii). The regulation says the following:

(3) Hazard communication. Except for a package containing button cell batteries installed in equipment (including circuit boards), or no more than four lithium cells or two lithium batteries installed in the equipment:

(i) For transportation by highway, rail and vessel, the outer package must be marked with the information in the following paragraphs (c)(3)(i)(A) to (D), or the handling marking in paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section:

(A) An indication that the package contains “Lithium metal” and/or “Lithium ion” cells or batteries, as appropriate, or alternatively, the word “batteries” may be used for packages containing cells;

(B) An indication that the package is to be handled with care and that a flammable hazard exists if the package is damaged;

(C) An indication that special procedures must be followed in the event the package is damaged, to include inspection and repacking if necessary;

(D) A telephone number for additional information.

(ii) For transportation by air, the outer package must be marked with the following handling marking, which is durable, legible, and displayed on a background of contrasting color:

Old lithium battery label

So there it is the results of my worlds colliding. There were no explosions, tidal waves, or earthquakes. There were no deaths from licking cheap envelopes, which is a reference to Susan’s fate. It was just an exercise of taking ICC Compliance Center’s “7 Steps to Compliance” idea and making them work for me. Of course, my head may explode when HM215-N is finalized and the information in this section of 49 CFR changes.

As always, ICC Compliance Center is here for all of your hazard communication and lithium battery needs. Call us today for lithium battery training, new class 9 labels or new handling marks, and new lithium battery shipping materials. We have it all.

Lithium
Safety Tips for Items with Lithium-Ion Batteries

Lithium-Ion Batteries in Our Lives

If there is one thing most of us have in common, it is how often we come in contact with items that use lithium-ion batteries. Whether it’s a laptop computer, cellphone, camera, or even an electronic cigarette, we rely on lithium ion batteries for many different purposes. Unfortunately for some consumers, when lithium-ion batteries fail, they do in devastating fashion. When a lithium battery explodes, it can cause a fire that generates temperatures up to 1000° F and can cause severe 3rd degree burns as the video below demonstrates.

What can we do to prevent such a catastrophic event from occurring while we utilize these everyday items that use lithium-ion batteries? Below is a list of safety tips when using items with lithium-ion batteries.

Lithium Battery Safety Tips

  • Only use the charger that came with your device. If you need to buy a new one, make sure the replacement is recommended for the use of your device by the manufacturer. Just because a charger fits in your device doesn’t mean that it is safe to use.

 

  • Do not overcharge your device. It is recommended that once your device is fully charged that you should unplug it.
  • Keep your device out of extremely high or low temperature locations. Do not place the battery in direct sunshine, or store the battery inside cars in significant hot or cold weather.
  • Do not expose the battery to water or allow the battery to get wet.
  • Do not use your device if you notice any damage to the battery after dropping it. If you suspect damage to the battery, take your device to the service center for inspection.
  • Do not carry or store the batteries together with necklaces, hairpins, or other metal objects.
  • Do not disassemble or modify the battery in any way. Modifying your electronic significantly increases the risk of explosion
  • Only transport your items with lithium-ion batteries in a containers that are specially designed and follow D.O.T guidelines.

As always, should you have any questions regarding lithium-ion batteries, please contact ICC Compliance Center at 1.888.442.9628 (USA) or 1.888.977.4834 (Canada).


Sources
http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/archive/lithium_ion_safety_concerns

http://www.genuinecells.com/blogs/safety-precautions-for-the-lithium-ion-batteries/

Oil drum spill
When Are You Required to Report a Hazardous Spill?

Reportable Quantities & Environmental Release

Unfortunately accidents seem to happen at the most inconvenient times. Whether you fall, crash, slip, or spill, it is often the aftermath that defines who we are. After all, there is no use crying over spilled milk. However if you spill hazardous goods, the aftermath can be a bit more complicated.

It is important when hazardous materials are spilled that it is addressed in a way that prevents any further damage to the environment or health of the community. But when is it necessary to report a hazardous spill to the proper authority? The Federal Government has established Reportable Quantities (RQ) for instances when hazardous substances are released in the environment. If a hazardous substances released in the environment in an amount that is equal or exceeds its RQ, it is required that it is reported to the federal authorities. A list of Reportable Quantities san be found in the latest 49 CFR.

Chemical Spill Guidelines

Specific guidelines are in place if hazardous materials are spilled during transportation. Whether you are loading, driving, unloading, or storing hazardous materials, you are required to adhere to the same guidelines. There are times when hazardous goods are transferred from one carrier to another. According to the D.O.T, whenever material is being transferred from one carrier to another, the upstream carrier remains responsible until the material is fully in the possession of the downstream carrier, no matter who is unloading the material.

Once the material has been delivered to the final intended consignee and the goods are no longer in transit, the final consignee becomes responsible for filing the report for spills that occur during the unloading process. If during the transportation of hazardous goods a spill takes place that meets or exceeds the reportable quantity (RQ), immediately contact the National Response Center (NRC).

You will need to provide the following information per the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA):

  • Your name, location, organization, and telephone number
  • Name and address of the party responsible for the incident; or name of the carrier or vessel, the railcar/truck number, or other identifying information
  • Date and time of the incident
  • Location of the incident
  • Source and cause of the release or spill
  • Types of material(s) released or spilled
  • Quantity of materials released or spilled
  • Medium (e.g. land, water) affected by release or spill
  • Danger or threat posed by the release or spill
  • Number and types of injuries or fatalities (if any)
  • Weather conditions at the incident location
  • Whether an evacuation has occurred
  • Other agencies notified or about to be notified
  • Any other information that may help emergency personnel respond to the incident

If you have questions about chemical spills or reportable quantities, contact us here at ICC Compliance Center at 1-888-442-9628 (USA) or 1-888-977-44834 (Canada).

Environmental Update
Chemical Spill Cooperation

Atchison, Kansas Chemical Spill

A little less than a month ago a small town near Kansas City, Kansas got a nasty surprise. According to local news reports a chemical spill at MGP Ingredients in Atchison caused quite stir around 8:00 in the morning.

The Kansas City Star reported the spill resulted in a mixing of Sodium Hypochlorite and Sulfuric Acid. The reaction of the two chemicals created a thick fog that covered much of downtown and areas north and west of there. Several areas were told to evacuate while others were told to “shelter in place” with doors and windows shut. Click here to view a video taken by drone of the chemical plume. By 11:00 am officials reported the spill under control and people were allowed back into their homes and business. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sent personnel to assist in the investigation.

Thanks to a good communication between MPG Ingredients, the City of Atchison and the local Fire/Emergency crews there were no serious injuries reported. Those caught in the fog, roughly 34 townspeople, had respiratory issues including coughing and difficulty breathing. At the time the article was written, there was no word on the number of affected MGP employees.

The key take away from this story is the communication element. It took less than 3 hours for this spill to be handled and for folks to be safely back at home, school or work. If MGP Ingredients had not reported the spill promptly, then the number of injuries would be higher. If local officials had not responded as quickly as they did by using the radio and social media, then the number of injuries would be much higher. If the local fire crew had not known what was needed to help the fog dissipate, then the number of injuries would be much higher.

There are always those that complain about updating hazard communication plans, workplace labels, safety data sheets, and evacuation plans. For those my response is simple. Here is the reason we do this. Here is why they are needed. Given the scope of the cloud and the area it covered, consider how many people were at risk. Had things been handled differently a much worse outcome is a definite.

As always, ICC Compliance Center is here to help you with all of your regulatory needs. For more information on our supplies and services visit our website: http://www.thecompliancecenter.com.

Safe Holiday Decorating

Holiday Safety

December means festivity and cheer for many. Many offices, including ours, enjoy bringing the festivities to work by decorating our offices, cubicles, and other office areas.

Safety is always important, festive occasions included. Safety+Health suggest the following to help prevent injuries while celebrating on the job. (Safety+Health Magazine)

Safe decorating

  • Don’t stand on a chair to hang decorations. Use a stepladder, and make sure to read and follow the instructions and warnings on the label. And never hang decorations from fire sprinklers – they can prevent the sprinklers from operating properly. OSHA regulations state that stacked materials should never be closer than 18 inches below fire sprinklers.
  • Planning to string decorative lights or other electrical items in your workspace? The Electrical Safety Foundation International, a nonprofit organization, states that workers should:
    • Be sure that all electrical items are certified by a nationally recognized independent testing lab.
    • Inspect all lights, decoration and extension cords for damage before using.
    • Avoid overloading electrical outlets with too many decorations or electrical devices – they can overheat and cause a fire.
    • Never try to make a three-prong plug fit into a two-prong outlet.
    • Turn off all indoor and outdoor electrical decorations before leaving.

ICC Compliance Center offers a variety of safety courses to train employees on the hazards in the workplace. Visit our website and view our safety courses for more information

From our ICC family to yours, have a safe and happy holiday season.