Lithium
Lithium Battery Labels as of August 1, 2017

Lithium Batteries, Laptop battery

The A-Team and Lithium Battery Marks / Labels

An iconic show from the 1980’s was “The A-Team”. It was about a group of former military men who worked to help those in need by using their former skill set. A famous line from it was often said by John “Hannibal” Smith, played by George Peppard. At the end of many episodes he would say, “I love it when a plan comes together”. With the publication of Transport Canada’s Amendment TDGR SOR2017 – 137, we finally have a plan coming together for the transportation of Lithium Batteries.

Finally, all transport regulations – 49 CFR, TDG, IATA .and IMDG – are on the same page regarding the necessary marks and labels needed for transporting Lithium Batteries. All of the regulations even have the same transition times for when the new Class 9 Lithium Battery Hazard Class Label and new Lithium Battery Mark will be mandatory.

New lithium battery label     New Lithium Battery Mark and Pictogram

Download Our Lithium Battery Labels Guide

 

Let ICC Compliance Center be your “A-Team” for shipping Lithium Batteries. Call us today for packaging, training, labels and marks.  We have it all.

Shipping by Road
FMCSA Electronic Logging Device (ELD) Requirements

Red semi truck on highway

FMCSA Goes on Tour

The Eagles, a popular band for several decades, broke up back in the 1980s. A famous quote from one of the band’s members is that they would play as a band again “when Hell freezes over.” Interestingly enough in 1994 the band got back together and went on tour. Of course, the name of the tour was “Hell Freezes Over”. I mention this because the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) is also about to go on tour.

The tour known as the “ELD Implementation National Tour” is a way for FMCSA staff members and experts to present, discuss, and help with the new Electronic Logging Devices or ELDs. An ELD is a device designed to sync with an engine to record driving times. This recording will make for easier and better tracking of a driver’s hours of service (HOS). These ELDs will replace the paper logbooks that certain drivers are required to maintain. To access the Federal Register for the full Final Rule, click here.

The ELD Final Rule was published in December of 2016 and has a 3-phase implementation. Each phase has its own time frame, objective(s), and device requirements.

ELD Rule implementation phases:

  • Phase 1: Awareness and Transition
    • Dates: February 16, 2016 to December 18, 2017
    • Objective: Learning the requirements of the new rule and planning for compliance
    • Devices allowed: paper logs, logging software, “Automatic On Board Recording Devices (AOBRDS)”, or certified and registered ELDs
  • Phase 2: Phase-In Compliance
    • Dates: December 18, 2017 to December 16, 2019
    • Objective: Carriers and Drivers begin to comply with the new rule.
    • Devices allowed: AOBRDS installed before December 18, 2017 and ELDs that are certified and registered.
  • Phase 3: Full Compliance
    • Dates: After December 16, 2019
    • Objective: All drivers and carriers must comply with the new ELD rule.
    • Devices: only ELDs that are certified and registered.

The FMCSA’s website has great resources regarding this new rule. Click here to access the site. The website has specific information on the rule, how to access it, and a link specifically set aside for Drivers and Carriers. The website even has a link for how to register an ELD with the FMCSA.

If you aren’t sure if you are required to have an ELD or have general questions about it, check out one of the tour sites and talk to FMCSA directly. The dates and locations are as follows:

FMCSA Tour Dates

  • Aug. 24-26: Great American Trucking Show, Dallas
  • Sept. 25-27: North American Commercial Vehicle Show, Atlanta
  • Oct. 14-15: California Trucking Show, Ontario, CA
  • Oct. 21-24: American Trucking Association’s Management Conference & Exhibition, Orlando, FL
  • Nov. 6-8: Women in Trucking Accelerate! Conference & Expo, Kansas City, MO

The best way to comply is knowing and planning in advance. Don’t get stuck on the wrong side of the law or Hell when it freezes over because the Eagles proved that it can. As always for all your transportation needs – training, hazmat packaging, labels, etc. contact ICC Compliance Center.

Frequently Asked Questions
FAQ: What is a Special Permit?

Truck Driving on highway at sunset

If you ever navigate our packaging section on our website, you will notice a section for U.S. Special Permit Kits.

You may ask yourself, what is a special permit and how does it apply to packaging? Well, basically special permits allow a shipper to perform a function that is not currently authorized by the regulations, or not perform a function currently required under the PHMSA regulations. Below are answers to questions regarding special permits.

Q. Why would someone need a special permit?

A. Special permits can provide relief from specific regulations when shipping dangerous goods. For example, it can allow a shipper to transport their dangerous goods in a specific UN-rated package without having to use hazard labels, as long as they adhere to the required provisions stated within the Special Permit.

Q. How do you apply for a special permit?

A. An application has to be completed and submitted to the US DOT along with specific documentation including written descriptions, drawings, flow charts, plans and other supporting documents.

Q. Do special permits expire?

A. Yes. Special permits expire after a period of time and the manufacturer must re-apply with the Department of Transportation.

Q. Does the Department of Transportation reject applications for a special permit?

A. The application must demonstrate that the special permit achieves a level of safety at least equal to that required by regulation, or if a required safety level does not exist, is consistent with the public interest.

Q. How long does it take for the DOT to process your special permit application?

A. Generally speaking, the DOT will attempt to process the application within 120 days. However this process can take months longer depending on the circumstances.

Q. What are some helpful tips when applying for a special permit?

A.

  1. Read the regulatory requirements very carefully. Familiarize yourself with the applicable provisions of the US DOT’s Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR) and the international standards that may apply.
  2. Carefully review the US DOT PHMSA website for letters of interpretation that may exist. You may find that a DOT special permit is not required because there might have been a previous ruling issued on the subject.
  3. Read the requirements for completing and submitting an application for permit and/or approval very carefully. If any piece of information is missing, chances are you will be denied and have to start the process all over again.

For more information on special permits reference 49 CFR 190.341, or visit PHMSA’s website.

An as always if you wish to purchase special permit packaging from ICC Compliance Center visit our website.

Hydrostatic Pressure and Shipping Liquids by Air

Pressure at High Altitudes

As the video above shows, you never know how the pressure change on an airplane will affect our sealed containers. From exploding shaving cream cans in checked luggage, to scattered potato chips at our feet on the floor of an airplane, the unpredictability of a high altitude can certainly cause its share of messes. Aside from having to do laundry while on your vacation, these examples are relatively mild. In the world of shipping dangerous goods, the consequences can be far more severe. For this reason when shipping hazardous liquids by air, our single and inner packaging must pass a hydrostatic pressure test that essentially ensures the pressure differential at high altitudes will not cause a disaster mid-air. You may ask, what is hydrostatic pressure and how is it measured?

What is Hydrostatic Pressure?

Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure exerted by a fluid at equilibrium at a given point within the fluid, due to the force of gravity. For the purpose of shipping dangerous goods, this is measured in kPa or Kilopascal.  When you see a UN Marking on a single package it usually looks something like this 1H1/Y1.8/100. The “100” is referencing the maximum hydrostatic pressure this container was tested at in kPa.

PK-KH6005 Plastic Container

Why is it relevant to shipping by air?

According to the ICAO DGP-WG/09-WP/67: When packages reach high altitudes during transport, they experience low pressure on the exterior of the package. This results in a pressure differential between the interior and exterior of the package, since the pressure inside the package remains at the higher ground-level pressure. Higher altitudes create lower external pressures, and therefore, larger pressure differentials. This condition is especially problematic for combination packaging containing liquids. When an inner packaging, such as a glass bottle or plastic receptacle, is initially filled and sealed, the cap must be tightened to a certain torque to obtain sealing forces sufficient to contain the liquids in the packaging. This will require certain forces to be placed upon the bottle and cap threads as well as the sealing surface of the cap or cap liner to ensure the packaging remains sealed. Once at altitude, due to the internal pressure of the liquid acting upon the closure combined with the reduced external air pressure, the forces acting on the threads and the forces acting on the sealing surfaces will not be the same as when the packaging was initially closed. Under normal conditions encountered in air transport (26 kPa @ 8000 ft), conditions are not overly severe. However, if the compartment is depressurized at altitude or if the compartment is not pressurized at all (e.g., feeder aircraft), the pressure differential may be severe enough to cause package failure and release of the dangerous goods in the aircraft.

What are the rules for shipping liquids by air?

For inner containers within combination packaging, a minimum of 95 kPa must be achieved during testing for most hazardous liquids, and 75 kPa must be achieved for class 3 and 6.1 hazardous liquids. 49 CFR 173.27

PK-G1600F 16 oz leakproof flint bottle    BI-BSS3 Plastic 95kPa pressure bag    MT-USPCGAL 1 gallon metal can

For Single Packaging, a 95 kPa test result must be achieved when shipping most substances, 75 kPa for class 3 and 6.1, and 250 kPa for Packing Group I liquids. IATA 6.3.5.3.1, 6.3.5.4, TP14850 7.6. In the example below, the 250 kPa hydrostatic pressure rating along with the Group I rating means that it would be suitable to ship Packing Group I liquids by air.

Steel Drum MT0M502

1A1/X1.2/250

From a regulatory perspective, Single Packaging’s must be tested every year, and contains a UN marking on the outside based on the test results. The inner containers within a combination package like glass bottles, plastic bottles, metal cans, or bags just need to be tested one time to verify the pressure rating as long as the design doesn’t change. 49 CFR 178.605

The Lab

When hydrostatic testing is performed at the lab, a valve is installed on the side of the container (clear of seams or closures) on three inner packages. A hydraulic pressure regulator and gauges are used to apply pressure and monitor the pressures. The containers are filled with water just below the container opening. The valves and gauges are checked for leaks and the cap is secured closed as specified in the closure instructions. A package passes the hydrostatic test if, for each test sample, there is no leakage seeping out of the container. TP14850 7.6.4. 49 CFR 178.605

ICC Compliance Center sells a variety of single packaging and inner packaging that meets the requirement to ship liquids by air. Feel free to contact us at 1-888-442-9628 (USA) or 1-888-977-4834 (Canada).

PHMSA
49 CFR – There’s an App for that?

oCFR Regulation Smartphone app

We’ve Come a Long Way

Technology is everywhere we look now. Think about some of the advertisements on television you see for what is available today in the realm of technology. There is the refrigerator that sends you pictures of its insides and keeps your grocery list. A device that can regulate your thermostat, turn on your lights, and send you reminders about events. Cell phones can now stream videos, search the internet, pay your bills, and still make calls. All of these are just in the past year.

Think back about ten years ago. It doesn’t seem that long ago, now does it? It is around this time that the iPhone craze was starting. In 2008 the iPhone 3G was released. As the second generation of iPhone, it came preloaded with such features as a GPS, special email capabilities, and the App Store. App stands for Application. It is from the App Store that people could download various tools, games, and software. Around this time, Apple began to advertise with the slogan, “There’s an App for that”.  You can watch one of the original commercials here.

So, why all the history? Because there is a new app available from the U.S. Department of Transportation’s (DOT) Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA). This app called “oCFR” (Online Code of Federal Regulations), which allows access to a simplified, mobile version of the Code of Federal Register (CFR). The app works on both Apple and Android devices. Also, it is FREE!

What can I do with the oCFR app?

From the app, a user can access the 49 CFR parts 100-180 for transportation including classifying and packaging for hazardous materials by highway, railway, aircraft, and boat. There is also access to the minimum safety standards for liquefied natural gas facilities found in parts 190-199.

After playing around with it some, here are some of my general comments.

General Comments:

  • The app was easy to download and find in the App Store.
  • If the user knows the exact section needed, the Section can be entered directly into the search bar and it takes you directly there. Each paragraph of that section is then listed as individual links.
  • For directions on how to use the App, users should click on the “About” link at the bottom of the opening screen. This will take you to another link that I would call the overview.
  • On the overview page for the oCFR tool there are links to access the following:
    • the oCFR Tool itself
    • A direct link to the Hazardous Materials Table and Appendices
    • A direct link to “All Interps” which is a way to search all of the letters of interpretation.
    • Chapter I PHMISA DOT Parts 105-199 divided by Subchapters A-D including 2 Subchapter Cs. One is for Parts 170 – 177 and the other is a continuation with Parts 178-185.
  • From the overview, a user can download the “oCFR Quick Reference Guide”. This Guide describes how to use the online application and some general features of it. You can also access the guide while on the oCFR tool overview page.
  • It will take some time to use the app proficiently.

This is a great way to gain access to the regulations during transport of hazardous materials. Stay tuned to ICC Compliance Center’s blogs for other great applications and regulatory updates.

Single Packaging
Latin, Vince Lombardi, & Packaging Selection

Man preparing shipment

Practice Makes Perfect

Most of us have heard the phrase, “Practice makes perfect”. I did when learning my multiplication tables. Others hear it in reference to playing sports. What is interesting is the phrase originates from the 1500’s. In Latin, it is ‘Uses promptos facit‘ which translates to ‘use makes mastery’. Vince Lombardi, American football player and coach, said it differently. For him, “Practice does not make perfect. Only perfect practice makes perfect” was the correct way to say it. The intent is the same. The only way to get batter at something is to practice it.

So how does that relate to making the correct packaging selection for shipments of hazardous materials? A shipper should practice using the regulation and the UN Specification Markings together before making any decisions on packaging. When working with clients in transportation training sessions I always remind participants that packaging is two-fold. You have to use what the regulations say and what the marking on your packaging allows. Let’s do a practice problem to show what I mean.

Steel Drum MT0M502

Practice Problems:

Problem #1:

Can a shipper put 16 Liters of UN1114 Benzene into a steel drum with a non-removable head for a US Ground shipment using 49 CFR? Benzene has a specific gravity of 0.876 g/ml. The drum has the code 1A1 / Y1.8 / 250 / 16 on it.

Solving Process/Logic: First, the shipper has to understand what the specification marking means. It is a steel drum with a non-removable head single packaging for liquids. The drum is rated to hold Packing Groups II and III materials if their specific gravity measurements are 1.8 g/ml or less.  The 16 Liters makes it a non-bulk shipment. This means column 8B of the Hazardous Materials Table (HMT) of 49 CFR is checked. The HMT sends the shipper to Section 173.203 for authorized packagings for that description. A steel drum with a non-removable head as a single packaging is listed in Paragraph (c).

Final Answer #1: This shipment is acceptable per the regulations and for the packaging.

Problem #2:

Using the same setup as Problem #1, let’s change the Specification code to 3H2 / Z25 /S/ 17. Is this allowed?

Solving Process/Logic: Again, the shipper has to understand what the specification marking means. It is a plastic jerrican with a removable head. It is rated to hold Packing Group III materials only and the maximum gross mass allowed is 25 kilograms. Check the regulations to see if the shipment is allowed by 49 CFR. The full shipping description is still UN1114 Benzene Class 3 Packing Group II. At this point, the shipper can stop. The jerrican is only rated to hold Packing Group III materials. Benzene is in Packing Group II.

Final Answer #1: This shipment is acceptable per the regulations. However, it is NOT for the packaging.

These problems are not easy. Try some on your own using the materials shipped from your location and the packaging you have on hand.  Remember, the only way to have your decisions be perfect is to practice.

For all your training and packaging needs, contact ICC Compliance Center today.

World Hepatitis Day Logo
World Hepatitis Day

Eliminate Hepatitis Banner

Are your Signs Accurate?

Since 2010, World Hepatitis Day is observed on July 28th. The goal is to raise awareness of hepatitis as well as the prevention and treatment of the disease. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), an estimated 1.34 million people died globally from this disease in 2015. In comparison, numbers that high match those caused by tuberculosis, malaria, and HIV/AIDS. According to the World Hepatitis Day website, “Currently, 90% of people living with hepatitis B and 80% living with hepatitis C are not aware of their status.” We all need to be educated. This is not a disease found in just one country or in one particular ethnicity. Here is the chance to educate ourselves. Check out the website dedicated to the even this year at http://www.worldhepatitisday.org/en/about-us

Hepatitis is the inflammation of liver tissue. It is most commonly caused by a virus and there are five main ones commonly referred to as Types A, B, C, D and E. Types A and E are usually short-term (acute) diseases. Types B, C, and D are likely to become chronic. Note that Type E is very dangerous for pregnant women.

Listed below are some key facts about each type of Hepatitis taken from the WHO website. For more information visit http://www.who.int/hepatitis/en/

Key Facts of Hepatitis Types

  • Type A – transmitted through ingestion of contaminated food and water or through direct contact with an infectious person. Almost everyone recovers from this Type. There is also a vaccine.
  • Type B – transmitted through contact with the blood or other body fluids of an infected person. This is a chronic infection with no cure. There is a vaccine for this Type.
  • Type C – transmitted through exposure to small quantities of blood. This can happen through injection drug use, unsafe injection practices, and unsafe health care. Certain individual’s own immune system will clear the infection. For others, antiviral medications can cure about 95% of others. Hepatitis C has no vaccine.
  • Type D – transmitted through contact with the blood or other body fluids of an infected person. There is no effective treatment and no vaccine. Infection with this virus cannot occur in the absence of the Hepatitis B virus. However, vaccinations against Hepatitis B is a good preventative measure to infection by Type D.
  • Type E – transmitted mainly through contaminated drinking water. It is a self-limiting infection that resolves itself in about two to six weeks. There is a vaccine developed in China, but is it not available elsewhere.

What does this mean for workers? Since many of these types are transmitted through bodily fluids including blood, they fall under OSHA’s purview. Under 29CFR 1910.1030, the Bloodborne Pathogen Standard, and the Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act of 2000 there are specific safeguards, trainings, labels, and signs that must be used in the workplace to prevent exposure to potentially infectious material. 

A link to the standard: https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_id=10051&p_table=STANDARDS

ICC Compliance Center offers a full line of biohazard labels and signs that meet the OSHA standard. We also offer a training and full packaging line for shipments of these biological substances. Check us out today!

railroad crossing
AAR Publishes New Edition of “Field Guide to Tank Cars”

Field guide to tank cars

AAR’s Field Guide to Tank Cars Download

Are you a birdwatcher who’s spotted every owl and thrush, and wants to move on to a new field of study? Are you a model train hobbyist who wants to make sure your HO scale equipment accurately reflects modern regulations? Or are you a safety professional who deals with bulk dangerous goods in tank cars? If your answer to any of those questions is “yes,” the American Association of Railways (AAR) has published something that will make identifying a TC-111A100W5 or DOT-117R100W as easy as telling a Mourning Warbler from a Laughing Gull.

AAR’s Field Guide to Tank Cars, by Andy Elkins, is a resource for rail workers and particularly for emergency responders. Tank cars come in many varieties, and handling them safely or responding to spills means that you must know what type of car is involved. The Field Guide has been updated for its third edition to reflect current regulations and standards, which have changed over the past decade due to incidents such as the Lac-Mégantic explosion in Quebec.

Types of Tank Cars

The Field Guide starts with a discussion of the basic types of tank cars – non-pressurized tank cars (also known as “general service” or “low-pressure” cars), pressure tank cars for products such as liquid propane and cryogenic liquid tank cars, used for gases that are liquefied at low temperature, such as liquid oxygen. After explaining the DOT (U.S. Department of Transportation), TC (Transport Canada), and AAR tank car classes and specifications, author Andy Elkins goes on to discuss how to interpret specification markings, assisted with a helpful diagram of a typical mark.

Safety Systems

Next, the guide covers the safety systems found in tank cars, such as Pressure Relief Devices (PRDs), and the markings that must be displayed on tank cars to identify qualification specifics, such as the Thickness Test. Further sections deal with additional details about the various car types, illustrated with clear technical diagrams and photographs. This arrangement makes it an excellent resource for non-experts who want a quick summary of tank car marking and safety, as well as a good in-depth guide for those who need to know details of the fittings and safety devices for specific commodities such as chlorine or crude oil.

The guide includes an Annex covering recent changes relating to tank cars in North America, such as Transport Canada’s Protective Directions #34 and 38, and the “FAST Act” amendments to 49 CFR.

Use of This Guide

This guide would be a useful introduction for anyone who ships dangerous goods (or even non-dangerous commodities) in tank cars. While the “Hazardous Materials Regulations” of 49 CFR (in the U.S.) and the “Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations” (in Canada) are the controlling regulations, their tendency to cross-reference standards often makes it hard to pull together a full picture of requirements for selection and marking. The guide arranges information in a clear, logical flow, and the illustrations prove that pictures are really worth a thousand words.

The best part? The Field Guide to Tank Cars is available as a free PDF download from the AAR site.

Have questions about shipping hazardous materials by rail, or by any other mode? Contact our regulatory staff here at ICC Compliance Center 1.888.977.4834 (Canada) or 1.888.442.9628 (USA).

OSHA Safety
Compliance Language

Current Dangerous Goods Regulations

Terminology in Regulatory Manuals

Language, as defined by the Merriam-Webster dictionary, is the formal system of words or signs that people use to express thoughts and feelings. Learning a new language is often a complex undertaking. It is also a time that lends itself to funny stories. While living in Austria for a few years taking German lessons was part of our visa process. We were encouraged to practice often. On one of my first attempts was to buy a certain pretzel. Somehow my request came out as asking for the “slow one” rather than the “long one”. My husband told a co-worker he “believed” he was a pencil. While neither request caused harm, it was confusing to the German speakers who heard us. I mention this because the language of transport regulations can be confusing as well until you have a good handle on the language used in them.

Let’s take a look at two simple words. We will compare their “everyday” usage with how they are used for transporting hazardous materials or dangerous goods. The two words will be “should” and “may”.

Word #1: Should

In normal usage, this word indicates certain obligations or expectations. Take for example the statement, “John should be ready by now.” By using the word “should” in the sentence, the expectation is that John is ready or prepared for whatever situation he finds himself. In transport, this word takes on some slightly different meanings depending on the regulation.

  • 49 CFR – US Ground: Per 171.9, the word “should” is used in a recommendatory sense. Meaning the shipper is not required to do what is listed in the regulation. It is encouraged or recommended, but it is not enforceable.
  • International Air Transport Association (IATA): Per Section 1.3.1.3, the word “should” is a preferred requirement. This means the section is not binding for a shipper, but there is a suggestion to follow whatever is listed.
  • International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG): It is in the Forward that we find this definition. For “should” again the word is used in a recommendatory sense. Items in the Code with this word are not required, only recommended.
  • Transportation of Dangerous Goods (TDG) – Canada Ground: Oddly enough, this term is not defined in Section 1.3 of the regulations.

Word #2: May

This word is used for possibilities or options even permission when used in daily language. An example here is the statement, “John may be ready by now.” In this case, the statement conveys the possibility that John might be ready, but again there is the option that he is not. Again, for transport, there are different meanings.

  • 49 CFR – US Ground: Per 171.9, the word “may” is used in a permissive sense. Meaning the shipper is not required to do what is listed in the regulation.  The item is simply allowed or permitted.
  • International Air Transport Association (IATA): Per Section 1.3.1.3, the word “may” is listed as a preferred requirement and not binding for a shipper. Again, as a preferred requirement there is the suggestion to follow whatever is listed but no requirement to do so.
  • International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG): Again it is in the Forward that we find “may”. Here “may” is used to indicate optional provisions. Items in the Code with this word have no preferred or recommended parts. The shipper can choose to either do what is listed or not.
  • Transportation of Dangerous Goods (TDG) – Canada Ground: In Section 1.3, the word “may” is listed as permissive. This aligns with the US Ground requirements and indicates things that are allowed or permitted.

Be sure to know the language of the regulation you are following before attempting to make a shipment of a dangerous goods or hazardous materials using it. You may be “believing” something that is not actually true or required by the regulation. For all of your transport needs, contact ICC Compliance Center today.

Packaging Infectious Substances

Infectious Substances Packaging

What Are Infectious Substances?

Infectious Substances are defined as substances which are known or are reasonably expected to contain pathogens, or micro-organisms including bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi which can cause disease in humans or animals. Section 1.4 TDG, IATA 3.6.2.1.1. They are split up into two separate categories. Category A which is capable of causing permanent disability, life-threating or fatal disease in otherwise healthy humans or animals. Category A infectious substances are either assigned UN2814 or UN2900 and are class 6.2. IATA 3.6.2.2. Category B substances are any other infectious substances that do not meet the criteria for inclusion of Category A. They are assigned the UN number 3373.

Packaging Infectious Substances

For Category A substances, Infectous Substances Affecting Humans or Animals Only, strict performance criteria should be met on the packaging including drop testing, puncture testing, a pressure testing, and a stacking test. The configuring is often referred to as the triple packaging system. When packaging Category A substances, you must start out with a leak-proof primary receptacle. If the substances are shipped at room temperature or higher, these receptacles must be made of glass, metal, or plastic. The primary receptacles must then be placed into a leak-proof secondary packaging, either wrapped individually or separated to prevent any contact.

Both the primary and secondary packaging must be able to withstand an internal pressure of at least 95 kPa. If the substance is a liquid it must have absorbent material placed between the primary and secondary packaging. If the substances are frozen or refrigerated, dry ice or Ice must be placed around the secondary packaging or in an over pack and a leak-proof container. The limit per container on a passenger aircraft is 50 ML or 50 G. A rigid Outer Packaging including drums, boxes or jerricans must then be used to surround the entire package. (See Image Below) 49 CFR (173.196), CAN/CGSB-43.125, IATA Packing Instruction P620.

Infectious Packaging Diagram
Diagram No. 1

When packaging Category B substances, Biological Substance, Category B (see figure below), the triple packaging system of primary, secondary, and outer packaging is also utilized. They must also be packaged in a way that under normal circumstances of transport cannot break, be puncture or leak. For liquid substances shipped by air, the primary receptacle must not contain more than 1 L, and the outer packaging must not contain more than 4 L or 4 KG for solids. 49 CFR 173.199, CAN/CGSB-43.125, IATA Packing Instruction P650.

Infectious Packaging Diagram
Diagram No. 2

And as always contact ICC Compliance Center for questions or to purchase Infectious Packaging.